Difficult questions, Pat. We haven't been ignoring you, just pondering.
The requirements for nursing in Canada are graduation from an accredited nursing school
, and successful completion of the national board exam (Quebec is a bit different I think).
The programs can be anywhere from two to four years (diploma vs BN or BScN). In Alberta they are trying to fly a 14 month program for people with preexisting degrees who have all the "optional" courses already to try and deal with the crisis in nursing.
As far as definitions of wellness etc. try the Health and Wellness website for Canada ot the Canadian Nurses Association website for these answers. Most of us at the bedside have neither the time nor the inclination to delve into these things LOL.
Canada, as a nation has tried to avoid the "melting pot". Sometimes I think that we go too far in trying to accommodate cross cultural belief systems etc, but that's just one person's opinion. After all, we are very polite doncha know :0).
The socioeconomic problems are the same as the ones you have in the states, poverty and ignorance cause illness, period!
We do have, in our institution, aboriginal helpers (a rough translation from the Cree language) to try and better assist our native families.
I don't know if I've answered any of your questions :0), I'm not certain I really understood the questions!