IVs Help!?

  1. Hello everyone. Can anyone explain the effects of isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic fluids to the patient? what are their "nicknames" in the clinical field? im quite confused . thanks to you all.
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  2. 3 Comments

  3. by   IamRN
    From this link

    Isotonic Solutions:
    Characteristics

    * Same tonicity as plasma

    * Osmotic pressure is the same on the inside and outside of a living cell that is in contact with a solution

    * Fluid neither enters nor leaves the cell

    * Approximate osmolality = 240-340 mOsm/liter

    * Will increase circulating volume, which may lead to fluid volume excess or overload

    Solutions

    * 2.5% dextrose/0.45% sodium chloride
    * 0.9% sodium chloride
    * 5% dextrose and water
    * Normosol® 3
    * Plasmalyte® A
    * Plasmalyte® R
    * Isolyte® 4 E - Ringer's
    * Lactated Ringer's
    * 2.5% dextrose in 1/2 lactated Ringer's
    * 6% dextran and 0.9% sodium chloride
    * 10% dextran and 0.9% sodium chloride





    Hypotonic Solutions:
    Characteristics

    * May cause blood cells to swell and burst

    * May cause changes/damage in endothelial cells

    * Exert less osmotic pressure than the fluid in the extracellular compartment

    * Fluid is drawn from the extracellular fluid. (If blood cells are placed in hypotonic solution, H2O is drawn from the solution into the blood cells)

    * Approximate osmolality < 240 mOsm/liter

    Solutions

    * 0.45% sodium chloride
    * 10% dextran and 5% dextrose (slightly hypotonic)

    Hypertonic Solutions:

    Characteristics

    * May cause blood cells to shrink

    * May cause changes/damage in endothelial cells

    * Exert more osmotic pressure than the extracellular fluid

    * Fluid is drawn from the cell into the vascular system. (If blood cells are placed in hypertonic solution, H2O is drawn from the cell into the vascular system.)
    * Approximate osmolality > 340 mOsm/liter

    Solutions

    * 5% dextrose/0.2% sodium chloride
    * 5% dextrose/0.3% sodium chloride
    * 5% dextrose/0.45% sodium chloride
    * 5% dextrose/0.9% sodium chloride
    * 10% dextrose/0.2% sodium chloride
    * 10% dextrose/0.45% sodium chloride
    * 10% dextrose/0.9% sodium chloride
    * 3% sodium chloride
    * 5% sodium chloride
    * 10% dextrose and water
    * 50% dextrose and water
    * 5% dextrose in Ringer's
    * 5% dextrose in lactated Ringer's
    * 5% dextrose and 5% alcohol
    * 5% sodium bicarbonate injection
    * 10%, 15%, and 20% mannitol injection
    * 6% dextran and 0.9% sodium chloride
    * 10% dextran and 0.9% sodium chloride
    * 10% dextran and 5% dextrose
  4. by   purplekath
    No sure if this is what you're looking for, but here goes.

    It helps me to remember how water moves during osmosis. Osmosis is just the movement of water (usually) through a semi-permeable membrane. The cell membrane is the semi-permeable membrane you see...water can move in and out, but all the other stuff (electrolytes etc) cannot.

    Now what water wants to do when it is moving around is to go to places where there is less water. Not less water as in volume, but less water as in the ratio to all the other stuff (electrolytes etc) to the water. Water likes to balance everything out and make things even.

    In hypertonic solution, there is too much other stuff -- not enough water. So the water in the cells will want to move out to the hypertonic solution. This causes the cells to shrink and "crenate" (technical term for becoming all spiky looking) as they lose water.

    In hypotonic solution, where there are not many other particles, the water will want to move INTO the cell, where there is less water. So this will cause the cells to swell up and get all bloated. They can even explode from being overfull (lyse is the technical term). Not good!

    Isotonic solutiion will have exactly the same water ratio outside the cell as INSIDE the cell. The water doesn't want to move anywhere, since the conditions are pretty good as they are. So there will be no movement of water.
  5. by   stillwater720
    :hatparty: Thanks kath and iamRn!!!:hatparty:

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