lets start with isotonic solutions... you have:
- 0.9 normal saline
- d5(5% dextrose) in water
- ringers solution
- lactated ringers as for the ringers just remember they contain a certain balance of a little bit of everything we need and its composition is similar to whats found in our plasma... making them isotonic forever and ever amen.
if you can remember the isotonic solutions then from here everything else is about numbers...
if 0.9% normal saline is isotonic and half of 0.9= 0.45% that would make this solution more dilute (more water...) therefore anything less than 0.9 is hypotonic
example: 0.45% saline
if the number is greater than 0.9% like say 3% ; 5%
has 2 solute percentages together like 5% in 0.45% well...
this definitely contains more solutes (more particles) therefore anything greater than 0.9 or contains 2 solute percentages is considered hypertonic
- 3% saline
- 5% dextrose in 0.225% saline,
- 5% dextrose in 0.45% saline,
- 5% dextrose in 0.9% saline
notice how either the saline by itself is higher than 0.9% or there are 2 different types of % solutions going on here? (more solutes) this makes it hyper hyper hypertonic!
if you can grasp that concept then you should be fine. i hope this helps and i hope i didn't confuse you.