The nursing profession is situational. Every day at work you have to make decisions based on the situation you are presented with. It's not about knowing facts and spitting them back out for the test. This is one of the biggest problems that nursing students have when transitioning from general classes to nursing classes. Just reading the book and learning the information isn't going to be enough. You have to apply it to your practice. Situational questions are the #1 type of question you will see on the NCLEX and on future tests.
They are harder questions than just knowledge. I wish that our nursing school
tests just asked me the definition of the trachea or the symptoms of an MI, but they didn't. They ask you what you would do if a patient presents with chest pain or dyspnea. Not only do you have to know the definitions and information, but you have to take a step further and know how to use that information in clinical practice.
My advice would be, after you read a section in your text, think about the disease or intervention that you just read about. Ask yourself, or make a list of what you would do if you had that patient in clinical. How would they present (signs and symptoms), what interventions would you be using to treat them? What medications would you use? What would you want to avoid? What emergencies could present and how would you respond? What are you going to teach the patient/family about the condition?
If you make a list of the answers to these questions, you will have a good understanding of not only the medical definition and patho of the disease, but you will also understand the nursing implications and how you would need to treat a patient with this condition. This will really help you when you are given situational questions.