It's wonderful to hear that you are already thinking in terms of your long-term career aspirations. I can provide some global information - but each facility is different.
In nursing, the heirarchy goes like this (from the top):
Chief Nurse exec - Report to CEO or President of the organization. 100% administrative focus. May be called VP of Nursing Services, CNE, CNO, DON (old fashioned), etc. - they are responsible for nursing services wherever they are delivered in the organization. This includes inpatient, outpatient, clinics, ancillary depts, etc. Minimum qualification is generally a Masters degree - some organizations require a doctorate
Director (or various other titles): Report to Nurse Executive. More "administrative" than clinical focus. Responsible for a clinical service line or other division that includes multiple departments (Cardiac, Women's Health, etc.) Generally requires a Masters degree. Some facilties require a masters in the appropriate clinical area. They have budgetary responsiblity, including development & implementation of capital & operating budgets.
Manager (or various other titles): job focus is 50% admin, 50% clinical (IMO, the HARDEST job in any hospital)
Report to Director. Responsible for one or more departments. In general, they may manage one big department or multiple smaller departments. They are responsible for day-to-day 24X7 patient care, including hiring & firing, ongoing interaction with physicians and ancillary departments, staffing & scheduling, etc. May have day-to-day operating budget responsibility. Most organizations have specific educational requirements - generally a BSN. Specialty areas may require clinical certification in that specialty.
Charge Nurse (various titles): Report to Managers. Responsible for managing patient care for a shift. Responsible for compliance with all policies & procedures, shift assignments, coordination of staffing with the House Supervisor for call-ins, floating, etc. There may be specific educational requirements, but not always. Clinical experience & demonstrated leadership ability is important.
House Supervisor: Hybrid management position - usually reports to CNE and provides "administrative" leadership on off shifts & weekends. These folks usually are responsible for things like overall staffing - covering call-ins, coordinating inter-facility patient transfers, activating on-call services, etc. etc. etc They do not have hire/fire authority. Most important qualification is usually experience (clinical & management). House Sups are frequently not seeking any advancement - they like this position and tend to stay put.