it is important to note that cardiac troponins are a marker of all heart muscle damage, not just myocardial infarction. other conditions that directly or indirectly lead to heart muscle damage can also increase troponin levels. severe tachycardia (ie: supraventricular tachycardia) in an individual with normal coronary arteries can also lead to increased troponins for example, presumably due to increased oxygen demand and inadequate supply to the heart muscle or "stretching" of the myocardium from fluid overload (troponin 1) as in the setting of acute renal failure versus troponin t in the setting of chronic renal failure in the prediction of prognosis.
troponins are also increased in patients with heart failure, where they also predict mortality and ventricular rhythm abnormalities. they can rise in inflammatory conditions such as myocarditis and pericarditis with heart muscle involvement (which myopericarditis). troponins can also indicate several forms of cardiomyopathy, such as dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or (left) ventricular hypertrophy, peripartum cardiomyopathy, takotsubo cardiomyopathy (broken heart syndrome) or infiltrative disorders such as cardiac amyloidosis.
heart injury with increased troponins also occurs in cardiac contusion, defibrillation and renal failure as well as internal or external cardioversion. increased troponins are commonly increased in several procedures such as cardiac surgery and heart transplantation, closure of atrial septal defects, percutaneous coronary intervention or radiofrequency ablation.