All units/facilities have drug books/policies about how and where (what unit) a drug can be administered and by whom. Please check with your facilities policies and procedures and/or pharmacy before administering any drug. In general, Amiodarone is generally considered a class III antiarrhythmic drug.
Like class I drugs, amiodarone blocks sodium channels at rapid pacing frequencies, and like class II drugs, it exerts a noncompetitive antisympathetic action. One of its main effects, with prolonged administration, is to lengthen the cardiac action potential, a class III effect.
The negative chronotropic effect of amiodarone in nodal tissues is similar to the effect of class IV drugs. In addition to blocking sodium channels, amiodarone blocks myocardial potassium channels, which contributes to slowing of conduction and prolongation of refractoriness.
The antisympathetic action and the block of calcium and potassium channels are responsible for the negative dromotropic effects on the sinus node and for the slowing of conduction and prolongation of refractoriness in the atrioventricular (AV) node. Its vasodilator action can decrease cardiac workload and consequently myocardial oxygen consumption.
Amiodarone is metabolized by the liver and can cause pulmonary fibrosis. PLEASE USE LINK TO SEE ALL ABOUT AMIODARONE. Amiodarone - Cordarone ® -* Intravenous (IV) Dilution Recommended concentration
: 1-6 mg/ml. Central line is required for concentrations
> 2 mg/ml. Supplied
: 3 ml amp (50 mg/ml. Infusion
: whenever possible administer through a central venous catheter. Also, an in-line filter should be used during administration. Cordarone I.V. concentrations greater than 3 mg/mL in D5W have been associated with a high incidence of peripheral vein phlebitis; however, concentrations of 2.5 mg/mL or less appear to be less irritating.
Therefore, for infusions longer than 1 hour, Cordarone I.V. concentrations should not exceed 2 mg/mL unless a central venous catheter is used. Cordarone I.V. infusions exceeding 2 hours must be administered in glass or polyolefin bottles containing D5W
Use of evacuated glass containers for admixing Cordarone I.V. is not recommended
as incompatibility with a buffer in the container may cause precipitation. Amiodarone
: I.V. DOSE RECOMMENDATIONS -- FIRST 24 HOURS -- Loading infusions
. The recommended starting dose of Cordarone I.V. is about 1000 mg over the first 24 hours of therapy, delivered by the following infusion regimen:
First rapid: 150 mg over the FIRST - 10 minutes (15 mg/min). Add 3 mL of Cordarone I.V. (150 mg) to 100 mL D5W. Infuse 100 mL over 10 minutes.
Followed by slow: 360 mg over the NEXT 6 hours (1 mg/min). Add 18 mL of Cordarone I.V. (900 mg) to 500 mL D5W (conc = 1.8 mg/mL).
Maintenance infusion: 540 mg over the REMAINING 18 hours (0.5 mg/min).
After the first 24 hours, the maintenance infusion rate of 0.5 mg/min (720 mg/24 hours) should be continued utilizing a concentration of 1 to 6 mg/mL (Cordarone I.V. concentrations greater than 2 mg/mL should be administered via a central venous catheter).
In the event of breakthrough episodes of VF or hemodynamically unstable VT, Give 150-mg/100 ml D5W over 10 minutes to minimize potential for hypotension. The rate of the maintenance infusion may be increased to achieve effective arrhythmia suppression.
The initial infusion rate should not exceed 30 mg/min. The maintenance infusion of up to 0.5mg/min can be cautiously continued for 2 to 3 weeks regardless of the patient's age, renal function, or Left-ventricular function. Hypotension
Hypotension is the most common adverse effect seen with intravenous amiodarone. In clinical trials, treatment-emergent, drug-related hypotension was reported as an adverse effect with intravenous amiodarone. Clinically significant hypotension during infusions was seen most often in the first several hours of treatment and was not dose related, but appeared to be related to the rate of infusion.
Hypotension should be treated initially by slowing the infusion; additional standard therapy may be needed, including the following: vasopressor drugs, positive inotropic agents, and volume expansion. The initial rate of infusion should be monitored closely and should not exceed that prescribed in DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.
In some cases, hypotension may be refractory resulting in fatal outcome (see package insert for ADVERSE REACTIONS, Postmarketing Reports). Bradycardia and AV Block
Drug-related bradycardia occurred while patients were receiving intravenous amiodarone for life-threatening VT/VF; it was not dose-related. Bradycardia should be treated by slowing the infusion rate or discontinuing amiodarone. In some patients, inserting a pacemaker is required. Patients with a known predisposition to bradycardia or AV block should be treated with intravenous amiodarone in a setting where a temporary pacemaker is available. http://www.globalrph.com/antiarrhythmics.htm
Always consult you facilities policy and procedures before administering any medication. http://www.globalrph.com/antiarrhythmics.htm
I hope this helps.