Hi! I am also from Quebec and recently went through all this to come work in Georgia.
Your course of action depends on what kind of Visa you want to get. There is the H1B visa, which most people know about. This is a more long-term visa, but takes longer, is more expensive, and your employer actually needs to sponsor you for this. Immigration attorneys are required for this process.
I myself got the TN visa. The TN visa is a non-immigration work visa through Trade NAFTA. There is a specific list of professions that fall under this visa, and luckily registered nurses are one of them. It is much quicker, and the visa itself only costs 60$. Here is the link for requirements for the TN visa Visas for Mexican and Canadian NAFTA Professional Workers
You need to get your documents together, your nursing licence for quebec and florida, education credentials, and a very well written, detailed job offer letter from your employer in florida. You should also be prepared to prove that you do not intend to immigrate permanently. You apply for this visa at a port of entry to America. I would recommend doing this at Montreal Airport. When you go through US immigrations, and they ask if you have anything to declare and all that, you tell them you are there to apply for a TN visa. They will bring you aside, look through your paperwork, interview you, etc. You get your visa directly at that visit if it is approved.
But first of all, you need to start the process with Visascreen if you havent already, because they take FOREVER. Here is the link for CGFNS, the company that provides Visascreen services. www.cgfns.org
Call the state board of nursing for Florida though, because some states do not require visascreen to work (Tennessee doesnt). You should apply right away for the Credentials Evaluation Service as well, because no one will tell you you need it, then your application will stay pending for ages because of this, with no one telling you they are waiting for the CES.It will also be extremely useful for getting the actual visa, because you will not need tons of different paperwork because this will say if your credentials match requirements.
The actual service, from the day they receive all necessary information, takes 6-8 weeks to get processed. From personal experience, if you pressure them, they CAN do it quicker. But if you dont, they will take their sweet time and you will just keep waiting. If your employer is willing to send them a letter saying they need you quickly, you can pay an extra 500$ to get the process done in 5 business days.
Oh, and since you work in Quebec, depending on where you went to school, they might make you take an english proficiency exam, the TOEFL. There are 5 approved nursing programs in Quebec that are exempt from having to write the TOEFL
McGill University and Dawson College in Montreal, Vanier College in St Laurent, John Abbot College in Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, and Heritage College in Gatineau.
Anyways, that is what is coming to mind offhand. If you have more questions, I would be happy to give you advice! Just send me a private message!